Thursday, October 26, 2006



ENSAYO SOBRE LA CEGUERA

José Saramago.
Novel de literatura en el año 1998

El ensayo sobre la ceguera es un libro necesario en la sociedad de nuestros días. Una novela valiente y arriesgada, como su autor.

En una ciudad cualquiera, de un país democrático cualquiera el autor plantea una macabra hipótesis, una ceguera blanca total y absoluta, casi de golpe, paulatinamente toda la sociedad se queda ciega, sin ninguna transición ni metamorfosis .Todos menos una mujer, la mujer del médico y una de las principales protagonistas de la historia.

El punto de partida es un hombre que parado con su coche en un semáforo en rojo, de repente deja de ver. Es el primero. Las personas que en ese momento pasan por allí lo llevan a la consulta de un oftalmólogo que tiene la consulta en la misma calle. En la consulta esperan un grupo de personas, un niño, un viejo acompañado de una muchacha de gafas oscuras, un hombre de mediana edad…, todos, uno por uno quedarán ciegos por una ceguera blanca, lechosa y repentina. Todos, toda la ciudad, todo el país, menos la mujer del médico oftalmólogo que tiene a este grupo de personas en la consulta. La mujer que se encuentra cerca de la consulta se reúne con ellos y a partir de aquel momento pasará a ser la guía y los ojos de cada uno de ellos.
Al perder la vista todos y cada uno de los habitantes de la ciudad, poco a poco comienza a reinar el caos, no hay medios de comunicación, ( uno de los últimos en perder la vista es un locutor de radio que desde su programa intentaba poner un poco de orden en aquel caos ), se paralizan los ascensores, dejan de funcionar muchas instalaciones eléctricas, los medios de transportes, los hospitales están desatendidos y los servicios de limpieza y recogidas de residuos dejan de funcionar.
Pronto algunos grupos de ciegos comienzan a organizarse y surgen mafias que utilizan el soborno y la violencia para conseguir y vender la escasa comida que queda. Aparece el mercado negro y sus peligrosas consecuencias.
Mientras tanto nuestro grupo protagonista sigue recluido en el piso del médico, atendidos por su mujer y siguiendo los acontecimientos a través de las ventanas que dan a la calle. Pronto comienzan a terminarse las provisiones, el caos y la delincuencia se han generalizado en la calle, muchos pisos son atacados cuando llaman a la puerta y la abren sus dueños, otros presas de la locura los abandonan y se lanzan a las calles.
Y la mujer del médico lo está contemplando todo, al principio todos creen que acabará por quedar ciega, hasta ella misma lo cree, pero pasan los días y esto no sucede. Y todos comienzan a preguntarse ¿ por que ?.
De repente aparece un elemento nuevo, una autoridad traducida en un ejercito hipotético saca a todos los ciegos de sus casas y los recluyen en un gran edificio a las afueras de la ciudad. Se convierten en apestados, en supervivientes y desterrados. Todo el grupo es llevado allí a la fuerza sin importar la situación ni el estado de cada uno. La mujer del médico permanece con su sentido de la vista intacto, nadie lo sabe, y el que lo sabe o lo presiente por su seguridad no lo dice.
El mundo se ha convertido en un retorno a los orígenes más primitivos y más degradantes del hombre, todo es suciedad, despropósitos, rivalidad, envidia por l que se presupone que tiene el otro, frustración, los instintos más primarios aparecen y todo vale en un mundo en el que ya no existen normas, ni leyes, ni ética, ni educación sentimental, ni nada que se le parezca. Y el edificio en el que se encuentra no es una excepción.
Se pueden establecer muchas y muy diversas conexiones en esta obra una sería la ceguera y el mito Kafkiano, a sí como en la metamorfosis la transformación en insecto de Gregorio Samsa no responde a ninguna lógica ni a ningún proceso natural y razonable, la súbita ceguera que se describe no tiene ninguna explicación ni lógica aparente.
Todo y todos se transforman y lo humano se vuelve inhumano y lo existente se convierte en inexistente, así es como en una escena que describe la novela en una iglesia atestada de ciegos harapientos y desesperados adorando a un dios que ya no ven se refleja en toda su crudeza el mito de los 4 jinetes de la Apocalipsis, la peste, la ceguera, el hambre, la muerte.
La mujer del médico, la única que a parte de ver y supervivir, tiene una visión y un criterio real de lo que verdaderamente está pasando, tendrá que vencer sus escrúpulos y liderar al grupo en el que se encuentra su marido, atacado y sometido como todos los demás por los grupos de ciegos que han tomado el mando del edificio. Primero pasarán a apropiarse de la comida y el agua, después comenzarán a violar a las mujeres. En uno de estos capítulos la mujer del médico matará al ciego cabecilla de la banda, clavándole unas tijeras en el cuello.
Al final se declara un incendio y consiguen escapar del edificio, entre la podredumbre que se han convertido las calles de la ciudad, la mujer del médico consigue reconducir de nuevo al grupo al piso de donde salieron. Ya no puede dejarles son una familia, son el único ápice de humanidad que queda, de solidaridad. Poco a poco todos y cada uno de los ciegos recobrarán la vista y aparecerá ante sus ojos un mundo gris, sucio y deshumanizado. Hay que comenzar de nuevo.
Hay un pasaje del libro que me gustaría reseñar, al final cuando todos van recobrando la vista, la mujer del médico contempla la vista de la ciudad desde la azotea del edificio, bajo un cielo gris plomizo y aguantando una lluvia menuda y viscosa. Por un momento pierde la visión de lo que está contemplando y se sume en una blancura absoluta. Pero solo por un momento. Ella no se ha quedado ciega.

En resumen, el autor nos alerta en esta gran novela sobre la responsabilidad de tener ojos cuando otros los perdieron, sobre las graves consecuencias de la sociedad de consumo, sobre los límites de los sistemas capitalistas, sobre nuestras propias relaciones con nuestro vecino. Moral, ética, educación…

JUZGUEN USTEDES MISMOS……

59 comments:

elisabet said...

Hola, Luis,

he leído tu mensaje de presentación en los foros de Bibliotecas virtuales y me he animado a ver tu blog. Es muy interesante, aunque la longitud de las entradas lo hace un poco lento a ratos.

Mi comentario al libro de José Saramago: me recuerda mucho al mito de la caverna, de Platón. Supongo que ya lo conoces: en un mundo donde todos viven de espaldas a la luz, encadenados en una gruta, un hombre se vuelve y descubre que el mundo es muy diferente a lo que, en realidad, ven. Comienza a ver formas, luces, colores: el mundo tal como es. Los demás lo toman por loco y acaban matándolo. Es triste: la sociedad ciega mata a sus profetas (léase hombres y mujeres clarividentes). Es así y era así hace miles de años. La esperanza está en lograr que, poco a poco, sean cada vez más personas las que se decidan a darse la vuelta y "mirar" de verdad las cosas, sin prejuicios y sin crueldad. Mirar, y algo más: aceptarlas tal como son. Sólo así se pueden cambiar.

Como dice un refrán budista: "lo que resistes, persiste", sólo podemos cambiar lo que amamos.

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